A long time ago in the mid 1950’s, Robert Heinlein wrote a story called “A Door into Summer” in which a competent mechanical engineer hooked up some “Thorsen tubes” for pattern matching memory and some “side circuits to add judgment” and spawned an entire industry of intelligent robots. To make the story more plausible, it was set well into the future, in 1970. These robots could have a task like dishwashing demonstrated to them and then replicate it flawlessly.

I don’t think I have to tell you, but it didn’t turn out that way. It may have seemed plausible in 1956, but by 1969 it was clear it wouldn’t happen in 1970. And then a bit later it was clear that it wouldn’t happen in 1980, either, nor in 1990 or 2000. Every 10 years, the ability for a normal engineer to build an artificially intelligent machine seemed to retreat at least as fast as time passed. As technology improved, the enormous difficulty of the problem became clear as layer after layer of difficulties were found.

It wasn’t that machine learning wasn’t solving important problems; it was. For example, by the mid-90’s essentially all credit card transactions were being scanned for fraud using neural networks. By the late 90’s Google was analyzing the web for advanced signals to aid in search. But your day to day software engineer didn’t have a chance of building such a system unless they went back to school for a Ph.D. and found a gaggle of like-minded friends who would do the same thing. Machine learning was hard, and each new domain required breaking a significant amount of new ground. Even the best researchers couldn’t crack hard problems like image recognition in the real world.

I am happy to say that this situation has changed dramatically. I don’t think that any of us is about to found a Heinlein-style, auto-magical, all-robotic engineering company in the near future, but it is now possible for a software engineer without any particularly advanced training to make systems that do really amazing stuff. The surprising part is not that computers could do these things. (It has been known since 1956 that this would be possible any day now!) What is surprising is how far we’ve come in the last decade. What would have made really good Ph.D. research 10 years ago is now a cool project for a weekend.

and training it to the task of blue jay spotting with a few thousand new images taken by a webcam in his chicken coop. The result could be deployed on a Raspberry Pi, but plausibly fast response time requires something a bit beefier, such as an Intel Core i7 processor.

And Ian isn’t alone. There are all sorts of people, many of them not trained as data scientists, building cool bots to do all kinds of things. And an increasing number of developers are beginning to work on a variety of different, serious machine learning projects as they recognize that machine learning and even deep learning have become more accessible. Developers are beginning to fill roles as data engineers in a “data ops” style of work, where data-focused skills (data engineering, architect, data scientist) are combined with a devops approach to build things such as machine learning systems. 

It’s impressive that a computer can fairly easily be trained to spot a blue jay, using an image recognition model. In many cases, ordinary folks can sit down and just do this and a whole lot more besides. All you need is a few pointers to useful techniques, and a bit of a reset in your frame of mind, particularly if you’re mainly used to doing software development.

and a board member for the Apache Software Foundation. He is a PMC member and committer of the Apache Mahout, Apache Zookeeper, and Apache Drill projects and a mentor for various incubator projects. He was chief architect behind the MusicMatch (now Yahoo Music) and Veoh recommendation systems and built fraud detection systems for ID Analytics (LifeLock). He has a Ph.D. in computing science from University of Sheffield and 24 issued patents to date. He has co-authored a number of books on big data topics including several published by O’Reilly related to machine learning. Find him on Twitter as @ted_dunning.

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